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“One of the funny things about the stock market is that every time one person buys, another sells, and both think they are astute.”

William Feather 

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A Stock Market, also known as a Secondary Market or a Stock Exchange is a market existing for the purchase and sale of investable assets known as stocks.
An efficiently functioning Stock Market critically contributes to the growth and development of a country for it gives companies the ability to access funds from the public, helps existing investors to disinvest and new investors to enter the market and also provides liquidity and marketability to existing securities. Advances in the field of information technology have made trading through Stock Exchanges much more accessible from all corners of the world through trading terminals. Today we simply need to glance at our phones to know about the current conditions of the Stock Market and whether or not it is a wise time to enter it.

A Stock Exchange has certain important functions of which the two main ones are: –
-To provide companies with capital to fund and expand their businesses
-To provide investors the opportunity to share in the profits of publicly traded companies.

Other than these, some functions of a Stock Market include the following:
1: Providing Liquidity and Marketability to existing securities: A Stock Exchange creates a continuous market where securities can be bought and sold. This allows the process of disinvestment and reinvestment thus providing liquidity and marketability to existing securities.

2: Safety of transactions: The membership of a Stock Exchange is regulated and its dealings well defined according to the legal framework, thus ensuring investors get a safe and fair deal.

3: Contribution to economic growth: As a market that allows the process of disinvestment and reinvestment, savings get channelized into their most productive avenues, thus leading to capital formation and economic growth.

The history of Stock Markets in India goes back to the end of the 18th century when long term negotiable securities were first established. In 1850, the Companies Act was first introduced and brought with it the feature of limited liability thus, generating investor interest in corporate securities. The first Stock Exchange in India was set up in Bombay in the year 1875 and called the Native Share and Stock Brokers Association. Today, it is simply called The Bombay Stock Exchange. Until the 1990’s, The Indian Stock Market only consisted of regional stock exchanges. It was only after the reforms of 1991 that the Indian secondary market acquired a three tier form comprising of the regional stock exchanges, The National Stock Exchange (NSE) and the Over The Counter Exchange of India (OTCEI)

The National Stock Exchange was incorporated in 1992 and recognised as a Stock Exchange in April, 1993. It was set up by leading financial institutions and banks and serving some important objectives which include:
1: Establish a Nationwide trading facility for all types of securities.
2: Ensure equal access to investors all over the country through a well-established communication network.
3: Meet International benchmarks and standards.
Within just a few years, NSE has been able to achieve these objectives and change the face of the Indian capital market for the better.

The OTCEI was incorporated under the Companies Act in the year 1956 and acts as a forum where small and medium companies can access finance in a cost effective manner to expand and grow their businesses.
Their main objective was to hence provide a trading platform for smaller, less liquid companies as they are not eligible for listing in a regular exchange.
In an OTC exchange, there is no particular market place in the geographical sense. Trading happens simply when a buyer or seller walks up to an OTCEI counter, taps on the computer screen at hand, finds quotations and then proceeds to effect a purchase or sale depending on whether the prices meet their targets.

stock exchange

In order to oversee the working of these Stock Exchanges and protect the interests of investors, the Indian Government further introduced the: SEBI- SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE BOARD OF INDIA.

SEBI, established in the year 1988 acts as an administrative body that promotes the orderly and healthy growth of our Stock Markets and prevents any kind of malpractices on the part of companies, brokers, merchant bankers and all others involved in the securities market.
– SEBI ensures that all brokers, sub brokers and other players in the market are registered.
-Ensures the regulation of stock brokers, portfolio exchanges, under writers etc. in the market.
-Ensures training of intermediaries in the market.
-Conducts research and publishes information useful to all market participants.
-Controls insider trading and imposes penalties for such practises.

In brief, SEBI is what ensures that our stock market runs as smoothly and fairly as it does today, and creates an environment inclusive of set rules and regulations that ensures the efficient mobilisation and allocation of resources through the securities markets.



To understand bitcoin, we need to first understand it as two components. The first is bitcoin-the-token which is a snippet of code to represent digital ownership of the concept. The second is bitcoin-the-protocol which the decentralized network that maintains the ledger of bitcoin-the-token. Both these concepts together can be called bitcoin. Also, a ledger is an account of all transactions ever taken place on the network.

Using free software, bitcoin can be created and validated. This creation process is called mining. Validation is done by special node or points on the network called miners. (It checks to see if the input and output expenses tally.) Once validated it can be sent to anyone in the world without a bank or centralized system in place. bitcoin does not exist physically it exists electronically as code.

Bitcoin was created by a pseudonymous software developer named Satoshi Nakamoto (their identity is still unknown) who wanted to create an electronic payment system that can operate without a central authority and wanted the system to be secure, verifiable and immutable.

Now, this new system had to be better than the old system for it to supersede it. Let’s look at what made bitcoin and blockchain so secure and popular.

  • Decentralization: This just means that we are getting rid of the middlemen. With the blockchain system, it was now possible to do transactions between people anywhere in the world and have the transaction not go through third parties like banks. The network is maintained by a bunch of volunteers who have no control over the transactions. The network also eliminates the double spending problem which is when an electronic currency is duplicated and sent twice. For example, you have $100. You give $100 to friend A. But you duplicate your money before you give it. Now you give this $100 to friend B. You initially had $100 but you gave away $200. This is the double spending problem. The blockchain is used to nullify this problem as all valid transactions are recorded there. Therefore duplicating bitcoins is next to impossible in this system.coin
  • Limited supply: Unlike traditional currency or fiat currencies where the central banks can issue an unlimited amount of money as they wish, bitcoin works on a tight algorithm that limits how much bitcoin is available at any one time. This reduces the chance of inflation and makes bitcoin a valuable currency to have.
  • Anonymity: Under this system for a transaction to take place it is not necessary for people to reveal their identities. It is only necessary for them to have a valid transaction request and bitcoin address. But law enforcement has developed ways to identify people using their bitcoin addresses.
  • Immutability: Once a bitcoin transaction is finalized, it is finalized. There is no undoing. There is no modifying it. This is why people say bitcoin network transactions cannot be tampered with.
  • Divisibility: Unlike fiat currencies, it is possible to enable microtransactions where the bitcoin is divided into smaller units called satoshi (0.00000001 of a BTC). This again makes it more appealing than traditional currencies.

Even if all this does mean safe transactions and no hacking, it should not make us complacent. There will always be people trying to take advantage of you. Be careful and always do your own research before you put your money anywhere.